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【借鉴】建筑师的情怀,有的人也许来到这里就不再离开
规划师杂志社   2018/2/7 17:13:34
 

澳大利亚Fitzroy Crossing 疾病疗养院
Fitzroy Crossing Renal Hostel / iredale pedersen hook architects

由专筑网李韧,杨帆编译

来自建筑事务所的描述。项目背景

在澳大利亚当地,土著人占据了3%的人口,他们从往日的各种灾难中幸存,并在全国各个城市传播传统的语言与文化。

Text description provided by the architects. Background
Indigenous Australians make up 3% of Australia’s population and have survived the trauma of Colonisation and are proudly keeping their languages and Culture alive in urban, regional and remote areas.

© Peter Bennetts

由于200多年的欧洲统治,这些地区面临着巨大的社会经济挑战,例如大面积的工人失业、酗酒、文化水平低下、健康状况不良等问题。这些问题围绕着第四贫困世界,有着非常大的生活压力。

These communities face major socio-economic challenges as a result of 200 years of European governance, including multi-generational unemployment, alcoholism, poor literacy, poor nutrition and poor health outcomes including obesity, diabetes, and heart disease. In some ways these kind of challenges could be thought of as 4th World Poverty- that of a stressed Nation struggling to exist within a dominant first world Nation.

© Peter Bennetts

澳大利亚菲茨罗伊克罗辛(Fitzroy Crossing)的偏远地区(人口约1144人)是最后一个边缘殖民地。这里距离珀斯约2675公里,距离布鲁姆区域约400公里。

The remote town of Fitzroy Crossing (population 1,144) was one of the last frontiers of Colonial development.  The town is 2,675km by road from the State capital Perth, and 400km to the nearest regional town of Broome.

© Peter Bennetts

场地平面图/Site Plan

这里的气候十分极端,旱季时强烈的季风会引发沙尘暴和森林火灾,而雨季时的亚热带季风会带来持续的高温天气,热带风暴也会引发洪灾。这里与澳大利亚北部的大部分地区一样,也有着严重的虫害问题,甚至还有很多种病毒。

The town experiences extreme climatic events; during the “dry season” strong desert winds bring dust storms and bush fires; in the “wet season” the sub-tropical monsoon brings high humidity and heat, with tropical cyclones and storms causing the Fitzroy River to swell- turning the town into an island for periods of up to 2 weeks.  Like much of the north of Australia the town is also exposed to plagues of insects, including mosquitoes that carry Ross River Virus and Murray River Encephalitis.

© Peter Bennetts

该项目位于澳大利亚菲茨罗伊河畔的Bunuba Country,菲茨罗伊克罗辛当地流传有4种传统语言,居住着一群土著居民,其中分别有居住于河流高山附近的Bunuba、居住于平原之上的Nyigina、位于东部河畔的Goodiyandi,以及位于Great Sandy的Walmajari,这4个土著团体常年居住于此。

这些群体生活在一个个小村庄里,这里也正是当地Renal疾病疗养院的所在地。

Located on Bunuba Country on a ford over the ancient Fitzroy River, Fitzroy Crossing is the meeting place of 4 Aboriginal Language Groups- the Traditional Owners- the river and hill people- the Bunuba, the planes people- the Nyigina, the eastern river people- the Goodiyandi, and the Walmajari  people of the Great Sandy Desert.
These groups live in small cluster villages that make up the town- and it is within the Community of Junjuwa that the Renal Hostel is located.

© Peter Bennetts

项目描述

该项目的目的是让患有阶段性肾脏疾病的土著人在这里进行血液透析,他们需要每周在这里进行3次治疗,每次大约2.5至4.5小时。此类疾病患者的存活期大约只有3年左右,这里只能作为一个保守治疗的场所,当地并没有正规的医疗设施。

Project Description
The purpose of this facility is to provide a place to live for Aboriginal people with “end stage Renal Disease”- allowing them to stay close to their family and community while receiving Hemodialysis for 2.5-4.5 hours, 3 times a week.  It is expected that most people will only live for about 3 years making this facility a type of palliative care facility- but without the formal medical spaces.

© Peter Bennetts

除了在这里进行疾病治疗之外,患者们还可以去往2500公里之外的珀斯,那里的医疗条件要好一点,只是这样就要饱受与家庭分离的痛苦,遗憾的是,许多人宁愿选择死亡也不想与家人分别。

Prior to the establishment of this accommodation facility and the associated “Renal Chairs” in the nearby Hospital, people had the choice of moving to 2,500 km Perth – and thus being separated from their family and community or simply staying at their community and dying.  Sadly, the trauma of being separated from their kin led many to choose the stay and die option.

© Peter Bennetts

这座建筑由13个房间组成,分布于6个小房子里,共能容纳19个人。每个房间都设置有1至2个卧室区域,并且还配备有轮椅设施、茶水台和露台。这些病患的的饮食和居住区域的卫生保洁主要由工作人员来负责。建筑设置有前廊,让人们可以有聚集交流的场所,而后方的廊道则更多提供的是私人区域,同时也将蚊虫和闲杂人等隔绝在外。

The facility consists of 13 rooms for residents, distributed over 6 small “houses” accommodating 19 people.  Each room is a 1 or 2 bedroom space, with a wheelchair accessible ensuite, tea preparation bench and insect screened verandah.  The residents’ meals and cleaning of linen are performed by the facility staff in the communal amenity building.  The houses are provided with a front porch that allows for public engagement, and the rear verandah provides a more private area, that is secured from insects and intruders at night.

草图/Sketch 4

有的居民来自边远地区,不能得到老年护理的只能自己照顾自己。

这片区域集合了4种主要语言,并且场地的整体规划、路径设置、景观物种的规划设计灵感都来源于当地的丛林特征,充斥着浓郁的家乡情怀。

The residents will be from outlying communities and will be able to look after themselves in all other ways- ie. they would not qualify as Aged Care Residents. 
The site has been planned to reflect the 4 major language groups in town; with the site planning, paths and landscape species selection referencing “bush tucker”, medicine and iconic plants from their homelands. 

© Peter Bennetts

这些建筑布局最大程度地结合了居住空间和文化理念,使当地人群能够看到户外来往的人和动物。

The distribution of the houses maximises the space between the dwellings and responds to the idea of “Cultural Surveillance”- the need for Aboriginal people to observe the movement of people and animals through the landscape.

平面图/Floor Plans

© Peter Bennetts

© Peter Bennetts

设计方案还包含了许多可持续性设计特征,其中有曲折的路径来避免疾病的传染,并且将走廊与室外景观相结合,景观物种的选择上充分考虑了语言特征,病患甚至能够在户外生火做饭,同时还设置有安全环保的丧葬设施。

Other Culturally sustainable design features include: multiple paths of travel to support “avoidance” relationships, view corridors into the landscape, language specific landscape species selection, support for outdoor cooking and fire use, and addressing mortuary practices.

© Peter Bennetts

各个小建筑之间的连通区域让说着不同语言的人群能够有属于他们自己的活动场所。

辅助建筑部分与主要街道相隔离,但从街道能够便捷地通向厨房、工作区域、社区洗衣设施、公共用餐活动空间、办公会议区,以及两座工作人员宿舍。

The spaces between the houses allow people from differing language groups to find their own external spaces under trees – responding to the request to provide separate spaces for people from different language groups.
The amenity building partially screens the houses from the main street providing access control, kitchen, staff and community laundry facilities, communal dining and activity spaces, offices and meeting rooms, and 2 staff accommodation units.

© Peter Bennetts

辅助空间分为两个区域,中间通过走廊相连接,让整座建筑呈现出欢迎的姿态。

当地土著人对于户外活动有着强烈的期待,因此建筑师通过走廊的设置将内外空间相互贯通,这样人们就可以在户外进行篝火晚会或野外烤肉等活动。

The amenity building is broken into 2 pavilions, separated by a breezeway space that functions as a “welcome space” and secondary activity area.
Aboriginal people in this region have expressed a strong desire for outdoor living- thus the core internal spaces support the outdoor, verandah based activity areas, which in turn support the external zones where the lighting of fires for gatherings or cooking bush meats can occur.

© Peter Bennetts

其中有许多居民十分年长,并且每位患者都需要获得尊重,所以他们还可以在这里时刻与家庭成员保持交流。由于肾脏疾病的原因,这些人自身体力低下,并且需要定期的血液透析,让他们时常回家似乎是一件不太可能的事情,因此这里对于访客和出访都有一定的限制。

Many of these residents are Elders in the community and our client group required a place of dignity that people could come and interact with their family members.  Due to the nature of the Renal disease they have very low energy levels and their need to dialyse regularly, the residents capacity for trips back to their community and homelands is limited- hence the need for the centre to welcome visitors.

© Peter Bennetts

材质

由于偏远的地理位置、不便的交通、落后的施工技术和后期维护水平,建筑师主要运用了钢结构框架和混凝土地面面板,尽量选择能够通过有限的施工技术来完成的简单操作。

Materiality
Due to the remote location and limited access to skilled trades for construction and maintenance the regional construction type is concrete slab on ground, with steel frames, Colorbond Steel and painted fibre cement cladding.  Technologies are kept as simple as possible.

© Peter Bennetts

这些材料呼应了城市宿舍建筑,其形式简单,但高耸的屋顶大大增加了建筑的体量感,同时也减少了建筑热辐射,在季风时节加强空气循环。而在天气炎热的时候,人们也可以运用DX空调系统来进行室内降温。

These humble materials are shaped to respond to the forms of a cottage or a civic building, with their simple forms being articulated by a soaring roof- with increased volume to reduce radiant heat loads and to capture cooling winds during favourable seasons.  When the weather becomes harsh people can move inside to spaces cooled by DX Air Conditioner systems.

立面图/Elevation

建筑师还为居住者设计了防蚊虫设施。所有的睡眠区域和户外休息区域都通过不锈钢防蚊网保护起来,这样也大大减少了疾病通过血液传播的风险。

A critical design feature is to provide mosquito protection for the residents and staff.  All sleeping spaces and the external living sleeping spaces are protected with a woven stainless steel insect screen that doubles as a security screen to minimise risks of mosquito borne illnesses.

© Peter Bennetts

太阳能和热泵为人们加热使用水,并且通过低流量装置来减少水源的浪费。其做法是通过地面钻孔,并且让水供应系统通过紫外线处理,从而消除病原体。

Water heating is via solar and heat pump hot water systems, water consumption is minimised via low flow fixtures.  As the facility is on a local bore the water supply is treated on site via an ultraviolet water treatment plant to remove pathogens.

© Peter Bennetts

© Peter Bennetts

© Peter Bennetts

© Peter Bennetts

© Peter Bennetts

© Peter Bennetts

© Peter Bennetts

© Peter Bennetts

© Peter Bennetts

© Peter Bennetts

© Peter Bennetts

© Peter Bennetts

草图/Sketch 1

草图/Sketch 2

草图/Sketch 3

草图/Sketch 5

景观图解/Landscape Diagram

建筑设计:iredale pedersen hook architects
地点:澳大利亚,菲茨罗伊克罗辛
建筑设计团队:Finn Pedersen, Adrian Iredale, Martyn Hook, Jordan Blagaich, Rebecca Angus, Nikki Ross, Jason Lenard, Rebecca Hawkett, Leo Showell, Craig Nener.
面积:1543.0 m2
项目时间:2017年
摄影:Peter Bennetts
制造商:Dulux, Bluescope Colorbond
建造商:Ri-con Contractors Pty Ltd
景观设计:iph
结构工程:Terpkos Engineering
园艺种植设计:Tim Willing
电力液压设施:BCA Consultants
基地面积:7276 m2
楼层总面积:799 m2

Architects: iredale pedersen hook architects
Location: Fitzroy Crossing Western Australia, Australia
Architectural Team: Finn Pedersen, Adrian Iredale, Martyn Hook, Jordan Blagaich, Rebecca Angus, Nikki Ross, Jason Lenard, Rebecca Hawkett, Leo Showell, Craig Nener.
Area: 1543.0 m2
Project Year: 2017
Photographs: Peter Bennetts
Manufacturers: Dulux, Bluescope Colorbond
Builder: Ri-con Contractors Pty Ltd
Landscaping: iph
Structural Engineer: Terpkos Engineering
Horticulturalist: Tim Willing
Electrical + Hydraulic: BCA Consultants
Site Area: 7276 m2
Gross Floor Area: 799 m2

来源:专筑网

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